In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology.
Aversive pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance
Frontiers Research Foundation,, Lausanne , Svizzera
Frontiers in neuroscience (Online) 6 (2012): 134–14. doi:10.3389/fnins.2012.00134
info:cnr-pdr/source/autori:Rigoli, Francesco ; Pavone, Enea Francesco ; Pezzulo, Giovanni /titolo:Aversive pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance/doi:10.3389/fnins.2012.00134/rivista:Frontiers in neuroscience (Online)/ann